Section 5. Depositions and Discovery

Rule 26. General Provisions Governing Discovery

Rule 26(a). Discovery methods

Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: depositions upon oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories; production of documents or things or permission to enter upon land or other property, for inspection and other purposes; physical and mental examinations; and requests for admission.

Rule 26(b). Discovery Scope and Limits

Unless otherwise limited by order of the court in accordance with these rules, the scope of discovery is as follows:

(1) In General.

(A) Parties may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, which is relevant to the subject matter involved in the pending action, whether it relates to the claim or defense of the party seeking discovery or to the claim or defense of any other party, including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition and location of any books, documents, or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons having knowledge of any discoverable matter. It is not ground for objection that the information sought will be inadmissible at the trial if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence.

   

(B) A party need not provide discovery of electronically stored information from sources that the party identifies as not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense. On motion to compel discovery or for a protective order, the party from whom discovery is sought must show that the information is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense. If that showing is made, the court may nonetheless order disclosure or discovery from such sources if the requesting party shows good cause considering the limitations in the final paragraph of subsection (b)(1) of this Rule. The court may specify conditions for the disclosure or discovery.

(C) The frequency or extent of use of the discovery methods set forth in subdivision (a) may be limited by the court if it determines that: (i) the discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or obtainable from some other source that is either more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive; (ii) the party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by discovery in the action to obtain the information sought; or (iii) the discovery is unduly burdensome or expensive, given the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, limitations on the parties' resources, and the importance of the issues at stake in the litigation. The court may act upon its own initiative after reasonable notice or pursuant to a motion under subdivision (c).

   

(2) Insurance agreements. A party may obtain discovery of the existence and contents of any insurance agreement under which any person carrying on an insurance business may be liable to satisfy part or all of a judgment which may be entered in the action or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment. Information concerning the insurance agreement is not by reason of disclosure admissible in evidence at trial. For purposes of this paragraph, an application for insurance shall not be treated as part of an insurance agreement.

(3) Trial preparation: Materials. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (b)(4) of this rule, a party may obtain discovery of documents and tangible things otherwise discoverable under subdivision (b)(1) of this rule and prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or by or for that other party's representative (including the other party's attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer or agent) only upon a showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials in the preparation of the party's case and that the party is unable without undue hardship to obtain the substantial equivalent of the materials by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the required showing has been made, the court shall protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning the litigation.

   

A party may obtain without the required showing a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that party. Upon request, a person not a party may obtain without the required showing a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that person. If the request is refused, the person may move for a court order. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion. For purposes of this paragraph, a statement previously made is (A) a written statement signed or otherwise adopted or approved by the person making it, or (B) a stenographic, mechanical, electrical, or other recording, or a transcription thereof, which is a substantially verbatim recital of an oral statement by the person making it and contemporaneously recorded.

   

(4) Trial Preparation: Experts.

(A) A party may depose any person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial.

(B) A party may through interrogatories or by deposition discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or preparation for trial and who is not expected to be called as a witness at trial, only as provided in Rule 35(b) or upon a showing of exceptional circumstances under which it is impracticable for the party seeking discovery to obtain facts or opinions on the same subject by other means.

(C) Unless manifest injustice would result, (i) the court shall require that the party seeking discovery pay the expert a reasonable fee for time spent in responding to discovery under subdivisions (b)(4)(A) and (b)(4)(B) of this rule; and (ii) with respect to discovery obtained under subdivision (b)(4)(B) of this rule the court shall require the party seeking discovery to pay the other party a fair portion of the fees and expenses reasonably incurred by the latter party in obtaining facts and opinions from the expert.

(D) In all cases including medical malpractice cases each side shall presumptively be entitled to only one independent expert on an issue, except upon a showing of good cause. Where there are multiple parties on a side and the parties cannot agree as to which independent expert will be called on an issue, the court shall designate the independent expert to be called or, upon the showing of good cause, may allow more than one independent expert to be called.

In medical malpractice cases, each party shall presumptively be entitled to only one standard–of–care expert. A defendant may testify on the issue of that defendant's standard–of–care in addition to that defendant's independent expert witness and the court shall not be required to allow the plaintiff an additional expert witness on the issue of the standard–of–care.

(5) Non–party at Fault. Any party who alleges pursuant to A.R.S. § 12–2506(B) (as amended), that a person or entity not currently or formerly named as a party was wholly or partially at fault in causing any personal injury, property damage or wrongful death for which damages are sought in the action shall provide the identity, location, and the facts supporting the claimed liability of such nonparty at the time of compliance with the requirements of Rule 38.1(b)(2) of these Rules, or within one hundred fifty (150) days after the filing of that party's answer, whichever is earlier. The trier of fact shall not be permitted to allocate or apportion any percentage of fault to any nonparty whose identity is not disclosed in accordance with the requirements of this subpart 5 except upon written agreement of the parties or upon motion establishing good cause, reasonable diligence, and lack of unfair prejudice to other parties.

Rule 26(c). Protective Orders

(1) Subject to paragraph (2) of this rule, upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the court in which the action is pending or alternatively, on matters relating to a deposition, the court in the county where the deposition is to be taken, may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) that the discovery not be had; (2) that the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) that the discovery may be had only by a method of discovery other than that selected by the party seeking discovery; (4) that certain matters not be inquired into, or that the scope of the discovery be limited to certain matters; (5) that discovery be conducted with no one present except persons designated by the court; (6) that a deposition after being sealed be opened only by order of the court; (7) that a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information not be disclosed or be disclosed only in a designated way; (8) that the parties simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court. If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the court may, on such terms and conditions as are just, order that any party or person provide or permit discovery. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

(2) Before entering an order in any way restricting a party or person from disclosing information or materials produced in discovery to a person who is not a party to the litigation in which the information or materials are being discovered or denying an intervener's request for access to such discovery materials, a court shall direct: (a) the party seeking confidentiality to show why a confidentiality order should be entered or continued; and (b) the party or intervener opposing confidentiality to show why a confidentiality order should be denied in whole or part, modified or vacated. The burden of showing good cause for an order shall remain with the the party seeking confidentiality. The court shall then make findings of fact concerning any relevant factors, including but not limited to: (i) any party's need to maintain the confidentiality of such information or materials; (ii) any nonparty's or intervener's need to obtain access to such information or materials; and (iii) any possible risk to the public health, safety or financial welfare to which such information or materials may relate or reveal. Any order restricting release of such information or materials to nonparties or interveners shall use the least restrictive means to maintain any needed confidentiality. No such findings of fact are needed where the parties have stipulated to such an order or where a motion to intervene and to obtain access to materials subject to a confidentiality order are not opposed.

Rule 26(d). Sequence and timing of discovery

Unless the court upon motion, for the convenience of parties and witnesses and in the interests of justice, orders otherwise, methods of discovery may be used in any sequence and the fact that a party is conducting discovery, whether by deposition or otherwise, shall not operate to delay any other party's discovery.

Rule 26(e). Supplementation of Responses

Except as provided in Rule 26.1 a party who has responded to a request for discovery with a response that was complete when made is under no duty to supplement the response to include information thereafter acquired, except as follows:

(1) A party is under a duty seasonably to supplement the response with respect to any question directly addressed to (A) the identity and location of persons having knowledge of discoverable matters, (B) the identity of each person expected to be called as an expert witness at trial, the subject matter on which the person is expected to testify and the substance of the person's testimony, (C) the identity of any other person expected to be called as a witness at trial and (D) the identity, location and the facts supporting the liability of any nonparty who is claimed to be wholly or partially at fault in causing any personal injury, property damage or wrongful death, pursuant to A.R.S. § 12–2506(B) (as amended). A party shall supplement responses with respect to any question directly addressed to (B), ( C) or (D) prior to sixty (60) days before the date of trial. Any witness not identified in accordance with this Rule shall not be permitted to testify except for good cause shown or upon written agreement of the parties. The trier of fact shall not be permitted to allocate or apportion any percentage of fault to any nonparty whose identity is not disclosed in accordance with subpart (D) of this rule except for good cause shown or upon written agreement of the parties.

(2) A party is under a duty seasonably to amend a prior response if the party obtains information upon the basis of which (A) the party knows that the response was incorrect when made, or (B) the party knows that the response though correct when made is no longer true and the circumstances are such that a failure to amend the response is in substance a knowing concealment.

(3) A duty to supplement responses may be imposed by order of the court, agreement of the parties, or at any time prior to trial through new requests for supplementation of prior responses.

Rule 26(f). Discovery Requests, Responses, Objections and Sanctions

The court shall assess an appropriate sanction including any order under Rule 16(f) against any party or attorney who has engaged in unreasonable, groundless, abusive, or obstructionist conduct.

Rule 26(g). Discovery Motions

No discovery motion will be considered or scheduled unless a separate statement of moving counsel is attached thereto certifying that, after personal consultation and good faith efforts to do so, counsel have been unable to satisfactorily resolve the matter.

Rule 26(h). Deleted

Rule 26.1. Prompt Disclosure of Information

(a) Duty to Disclose, Scope. Within the times set forth in subdivision (b), each party shall disclose in writing to every other party:

(1) The factual basis of the claim or defense. In the event of multiple claims or defenses, the factual basis for each claim or defense.

(2) The legal theory upon which each claim or defense is based including, where necessary for a reasonable understanding of the claim or defense, citations of pertinent legal or case authorities.

(3) The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of any witnesses whom the disclosing party expects to call at trial with a fair description of the substance of each witness' expected testimony.

(4) The names and addresses of all persons whom the party believes may have knowledge or information relevant to the events, transactions, or occurrences that gave rise to the action, and the nature of the knowledge or information each such individual is believed to possess.

(5) The names and addresses of all persons who have given statements, whether written or recorded, signed or unsigned, and the custodian of the copies of those statements.

(6) The name and address of each person whom the disclosing party expects to call as an expert witness at trial, the subject matter on which the expert is expected to testify, the substance of the facts and opinions to which the expert is expected to testify, a summary of the grounds for each opinion, the qualifications of the witness and the name and address of the custodian of copies of any reports prepared by the expert.

(7) A computation and the measure of damage alleged by the disclosing party and the documents or testimony on which such computation and measure are based and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of all damage witnesses.

(8) The existence, location, custodian, and general description of any tangible evidence, relevant documents, or electronically stored information that the disclosing party plans to use at trial and relevant insurance agreements.

(9) A list of the documents or electronically stored information, or in the case of voluminous documentary information or electronically stored information, a list of the categories of documents or electronically stored information, known by a party to exist whether or not in the party's possession, custody or control and which that party believes may be relevant to the subject matter of the action, and those which appear reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence, and the date(s) upon which those documents or electronically stored information will be made, or have been made, available for inspection, copying, testing or sampling. Unless good cause is stated for not doing so, a copy of the documents and electronically stored information listed shall be served with the disclosure. If production is not made, the name and address of the custodian of the documents and electronically stored information shall be indicated. A party who produces documents for inspection shall produce them as they are kept in the usual course of business.

Rule 26.2. Exchange of Records and Discovery Limitations in Medical Malpractice Cases

(a) Exchange of Records.

(1) Within five days of the date that plaintiff notifies the court pursuant to Rule 16(c) of these Rules that all served defendants have either answered or filed motions, plaintiff shall serve upon defendant copies of all of plaintiff's available medical records relevant to the condition which is the subject matter of the action.

(2) Within ten days of the date of service by plaintiff of such records, each defendant shall serve upon plaintiff copies of all of plaintiff's medical records relevant to the condition which is the subject matter of the action.

(3) In lieu of serving copies of the above–described records counsel may, before the date set for exchange of records, inquire of opposing counsel concerning the documents or electronically stored information which opposing counsel wishes produced and may then produce copies of only those records which are specifically requested.

(b) Discovery Limitations. Before the comprehensive pretrial conference contemplated by Rule 16(c) of these Rules, the parties may exchange the uniform interrogatories set forth in the Appendix and 10 additional non–uniform interrogatories. Any subparagraph of a non–uniform interrogatory will be treated as one non–uniform interrogatory. The parties may also submit a request for production of documents pursuant to Rule 34 of these Rules, requesting the following items:

1. A party's wage information where relevant.

2. Written or recorded statements by any party or witness including reports or statements of experts.

3. Any exhibits intended to be used at trial.

4. Incident reports.

In addition, the depositions of the parties and any known liability experts may be taken. No other discovery is permitted before the comprehensive pretrial conference except pursuant to stipulation of the parties, or, upon motion and a showing of good cause. Stipulations for additional discovery shall not be unreasonably withheld.

Rule 27. Depositions Before Action or Pending Appeal

Rule 27(a). Before Action; Petition; Notice and Service; Order and Examination; Use of Deposition

1. A person who desires to perpetuate that person's own testimony or that of another person regarding any matter that may be cognizable in any court may file a verified petition in the superior court in the county of the residence of any expected adverse party. The petition shall be entitled in the name of the petitioner and shall show:

(i) That the petitioner expects to be a party to an action cognizable in a court but is presently unable to bring it or cause it to be brought.

(ii) The subject matter of the expected action and the petitioner's interest therein.

(iii) The facts which the petitioner desires to establish by the proposed testimony and the reasons for desiring to perpetuate it.

(iv) The names or a description of the persons the petitioner expects will be adverse parties and their addresses so far as known.

(v) The names and addresses of the persons to be examined and the substance of the testimony which the petitioner expects to elicit from each. The petition shall also ask for an order authorizing the petitioner to take the depositions of the persons to be examined named in the petition, for the purpose of perpetuating their testimony.

2. The petitioner shall thereafter serve a notice upon each person named in the petition as an expected adverse party, together with a copy of the petition, stating that the petitioner will apply to the court, at a time and place named therein, for the order described in the petition. At least twenty days before the date of hearing the notice shall be served either within or without the state in the manner provided in Rule 4.1 or Rule 4.2 of these rules for service of summons, but if such service cannot with due diligence be made upon any expected adverse party named in the petition, the court may make such order as is just for service by publication or otherwise, and shall appoint, for persons not served in the manner provided in Rule 4.1 or Rule 4.2 an attorney who shall represent them, and, in case they are not otherwise represented, shall cross–examine the deponent. If any expected adverse party is a minor or incompetent, the provisions of Rule 17(g) shall apply.

3. If the court is satisfied that the perpetuation of the testimony may prevent a failure or delay of justice, it shall make an order designating or describing the persons whose depositions may be taken and specifying the subject matter of the examination and whether the depositions shall be taken upon oral examination or written interrogatories. The depositions may then be taken in accordance with these Rules, and the court may make orders of the character provided for by Rules 34 and 35. For the purpose of applying these Rules to depositions for perpetuating testimony, each reference therein to the court in which the action is pending shall be deemed to refer to the court in which the petition for such deposition was filed.

4. If a deposition to perpetuate testimony is taken under these Rules, it may be used in any action involving the same subject matter subsequently brought, in accordance with the provisions of Rule 32(a).

Rule 27(b). Pending appeal

If an appeal has been taken from a judgment of a superior court or before taking an appeal if the time therefor has not expired, the court in which the judgment was rendered may allow the taking of the depositions of witnesses to perpetuate their testimony for use in the event of further proceedings in the court. In such case the party who desires to perpetuate the testimony may make a motion in the court for leave to take the depositions, upon the same notice and service thereof as if the action was pending in the court. The motion shall show the names and addresses of the persons to be examined, the substance of the testimony which the party expects to elicit from each and the reasons for perpetuating their testimony. If the court finds that the perpetuation of the testimony is proper to avoid a failure or delay of justice, it may make an order allowing the depositions to be taken and may make orders of the character provided for by Rules 34 and 35, and thereupon the depositions may be taken and used in the same manner and under the same conditions as are prescribed in these Rules for depositions taken in actions pending in the superior court.

Rule 28. Persons Before Whom Depositions May Be Taken

Rule 28(a). Within the United States; commission or letters rogatory

Within the United States or within a territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, depositions shall be taken before an officer authorized to administer oaths by the laws of the United States, the State of Arizona, or of the place where the examination is held, or before a person appointed by the court in which the action is pending. A person so appointed has power to administer oaths and take testimony. Depositions may be taken in this state or anywhere upon notice provided by these Rules without a commission, letters rogatory or other writ. The term officer as used in Rules 30, 31 and 32 includes a person appointed by the court or designated by the parties under Rule 29.

Upon proof that the notice to take a deposition outside this state has been given as provided by these Rules, the party seeking such deposition may, but is not required, after one full day's notice to the other parties, have issued by the clerk, in the form given in such notice, a commission or letters rogatory or other like writ either in lieu of the notice to take the deposition or supplementary thereto. Failure to file written objections to such form before or at the time of its issuance shall be a waiver of any objection thereto. Any objection shall be heard and determined forthwith by the court or judge thereof.

Rule 28(b). In foreign countries

In a foreign country, depositions may be taken (1) on notice before a person authorized to administer oaths in the place in which the examination is held, either by the law thereof or by the law of the United States, or (2) before a person commissioned by the court, and a person so commissioned shall have the power by virtue of the commission to administer any necessary oath and take testimony, or (3) pursuant to a letter rogatory. A commission or a letter rogatory shall be issued on application and notice and on terms that are just and appropriate. It is not requisite to the issuance of a commission or a letter rogatory that the taking of the deposition in any other manner is impracticable or inconvenient; and both a commission and a letter rogatory may be issued in proper cases. A notice or commission may designate the person before whom the deposition is to be taken either by the name or descriptive title. A letter rogatory may be addressed "To the Appropriate Authority in (here name the country)." Evidence obtained in response to a letter rogatory need not be excluded merely for the reason that it is not a verbatim transcript or that the testimony was not taken under oath or for any similar departure from the requirements for depositions taken within the United States under these rules.

Rule 28(c). Disqualification for interest

No deposition shall be taken before a person who is a relative or employee or attorney or counsel of any of the parties, or is a relative or employee of such attorney or counsel, or is financially interested in the action.

Rule 29. Stipulations regarding discovery procedure

Unless the court orders otherwise, the parties may by stipulation (1) provide that depositions may be taken before any person, at any time or place, upon any notice, and in any manner and when so taken may be used like other depositions, and (2) modify the procedures provided by these rules for other methods of discovery, including extending the time provided in Rules 33, 34, and 36 for responses to discovery.

Rule 30. Depositions Upon Oral Examination

Rule 30(a). When Depositions May Be Taken

After commencement of the action, the testimony of parties or any expert witnesses expected to be called may be taken by deposition upon oral examination. Depositions of document custodians may be taken to secure production of documents and to establish evidentiary foundation. No other depositions shall be taken except upon: (1) agreement of all parties; (2) an order of the court following a motion demonstrating good cause, or (3) an order of the court following a Comprehensive Pretrial Conference pursuant to Rule 16(c).

If the plaintiff seeks to take a deposition prior to the expiration of 30 days after service of the summons and complaint upon any defendant or service which is completed under Rule 4.2 of these rules, leave of court, granted with or without notice, is required except that leave is not required: (1) if a defendant has served a notice of taking deposition or otherwise sought discovery or (2) if special notice is given as provided in subdivision (b)(2) of this rule. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by subpoena as provided in Rule 45. The deposition of a person confined in prison may be taken only by leave of court on such terms as the court prescribes.

Rule 30(b). Notice of Examination; General Requirements; Special Notice; Method of Recording; Production of Documents and Things; Deposition of Organization; Deposition by Telephone

(1) Absent a stipulation of all parties to the action or an order of the court authorizing a briefer notice, a party desiring to take the deposition of any person upon oral examination shall give notice in writing to every other party to the action at least ten days prior to the date of the deposition. The notice shall state the date, time and place for taking the deposition, the name and address of each person to be examined, if known, and, if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify the person or the particular class or group to which the person belongs, and the name and address of the person before whom the deposition shall be taken. If a subpoena duces tecum is to be served on the person to be examined, the designation of the materials to be produced as set forth in the subpoena shall be attached to or included in the notice.

If the deposition is to be recorded by audio or audio–video, the notice shall state the technique for recording the deposition and the protocols to be used for such recording, the identity of the person recording the deposition, and the placement of camera(s), if any.

(2) Leave of court is not required for the taking of a deposition by plaintiff if the notice (A) states that the person to be examined is about to go out of the State of Arizona, and will be unavailable for examination unless the person's deposition is taken before expiration of the 30–day period, and (B) sets forth facts to support the statement. The plaintiff's attorney shall sign the notice, and the attorney's signature constitutes a certification by the attorney that to the best of the attorney's knowledge, information, and belief the statement and supporting facts are true. The sanctions provided by Rule 11(a) are applicable to the certification.

If a party shows that when the party was served with notice under this subdivision (b)(2) the party was unable through the exercise of diligence to obtain counsel to represent the party at the taking of the deposition, the deposition may not be used against the party.

(3) The court may for cause shown enlarge or shorten the time for taking the deposition.

(4) Unless the parties stipulate or the court orders otherwise, the deposition shall be recorded by a certified court reporter and may also be recorded by audio or audio–video means.

When a deposition is recorded only by a certified court reporter, the party taking the deposition shall bear the cost of the recording. If requested by one of the parties, the testimony shall be transcribed. If the testimony is transcribed, the party noticing the deposition or the party causing the deposition to be taken shall be responsible for the cost of the original transcript. A party may arrange to have a certified copy of the transcript made at the party's own expense. If audio or audio–video is additionally requested by one of the parties, the requesting party shall be responsible for the cost of such recording, and a party requesting an audio or audio–video copy of the deposition shall be responsible for the cost of the audio or audio–video copy.

When a deposition is recorded only by audio or audio–video means, the party noticing the deposition shall bear the cost of the recording. A party requesting an audio or audio–video copy of the deposition shall be responsible for the cost of the audio or audio–video copy. The stipulation or order shall designate the person before whom the deposition shall be taken, the manner of recording, preserving and filing the deposition, and may include other provisions to assure that the recorded testimony will be accurate and trustworthy. A party may arrange to have a certified transcript made at the party's own expense.

Any changes made by the witness, the witness' signature identifying the deposition as the witness' own or the statement of the officer that is required if the witness does not sign as provided in subdivision (e), and the certification of the officer required by subdivision (f) shall be set forth in a writing to accompany a deposition.

Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a deposition shall be conducted before an officer appointed or designated under Rule 28 and shall begin with a statement or notation on the record by the officer that includes (A) the officer's name, certification number, if any, and business address; (B) the date, time and place of the deposition; (C) the name of the deponent; (D) the administration of the oath or affirmation to the deponent; and (E) an identification of all persons present. The officer shall repeat items (A) through (C) at the beginning of each unit of recorded tape or other recording medium. The appearance or demeanor of deponents or attorneys shall not be distorted through camera or sound–recording techniques. At the end of the deposition, the officer shall state or note on the record that the deposition is complete and shall set forth any stipulations made by counsel concerning the custody of the transcript or recording and the exhibits, or concerning other pertinent matters.

(5) The notice to a party deponent may be accompanied by a request made in compliance with Rule 34 for the production of documents and tangible things at the taking of the deposition. The procedure of Rule 34 shall apply to the request.

(6) A party may in the party's notice name as the deponent a public or private corporation or a partnership or association or governmental agency and designate with reasonable particularity the matters on which examination is requested. The organization so named shall designate one or more officers, directors, or managing agents, or other persons who consent to testify on its behalf, and may set forth, for each person designated, the matters on which that person will testify. The persons so designated shall testify as to matters known or reasonably available to the organization. This subdivision (b)(6) does not preclude taking a deposition by any other procedure authorized in these rules.

(7) The parties may stipulate or the court may order that a deposition be taken by telephone. For the purpose of this Rule and Rules 28(a), 37(a)(1), 45(c)(3)(A)(ii), and 45(e), a deposition is taken in the county where the deponent is to answer questions propounded to the deponent.

Rule 30(c). Examination and Cross–Examination; Record of Examination; Oath; Objections

Examination and cross–examination of witnesses may proceed as permitted at the trial under the provisions of the Arizona Rules of Evidence. The examination shall commence at the time and place specified in the notice or within thirty minutes thereafter. And, unless otherwise stipulated or ordered, will be continued on successive days, except Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays until completed. Any party not present within thirty minutes following the time specified in the notice of taking deposition waives any objection that the deposition was taken without that party's presence. The officer before whom the deposition is to be taken shall put the witness on oath and shall personally, or by someone acting under the officer's direction and in the officer's presence, record the testimony of the witness. If the deposition is taken telephonically and the witness is not physically in the presence of the officer before whom the deposition is to be taken, the officer may nonetheless place the witness under oath with the same force and effect as if the witness were physically present before the officer. The testimony shall be taken in accordance with subdivision (b)(4) of this rule.

All objections made at the time of the examination to the qualifications of the officer taking the deposition, or to the manner of taking it, or to the evidence presented, or to the conduct of any party, and any other objection to the proceedings, shall be noted by the officer upon the deposition. Evidence objected to shall be taken subject to the objections. The court shall assess an appropriate sanction, including a sanction provided for under Rule 16(f), against any party or attorney who has engaged in unreasonable, groundless, abusive or obstructionist conduct. In lieu of participating in the oral examination, parties may serve written questions in a sealed envelope on the party taking the deposition and the party taking the deposition shall transmit them to the officer, who shall propound them to the witness and record the answers verbatim.

Rule 30(d). Length of Deposition; Motion to Terminate or Limit Examination

Depositions shall be of reasonable length. The oral deposition of any party or witness, including expert witnesses, whenever taken, shall not exceed four (4) hours in length, except pursuant to stipulation of the parties, or, upon motion and a showing of good cause. The court shall impose sanctions pursuant to Rule 16(f) for unreasonable, groundless, abusive or obstructionist conduct.

At any time during the taking of the deposition, on motion of a party or of the deponent and upon a showing that the examination is being conducted in bad faith or in such manner as unreasonably to annoy, embarrass, or oppress the deponent or party, the court in which the action is pending or the court in the county where the deposition is being taken may order the officer conducting the examination to cease forthwith from taking the deposition, or may limit the scope and manner of the taking of the deposition as provided in Rule 26(c). If the order made terminates the examination, it shall be resumed thereafter only upon the order of the court in which the action is pending. Upon demand of the objecting party or deponent, the taking of the deposition shall be suspended for the time necessary to make a motion for an order. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

Rule 30(e). Submission to Witness; Changes, Signing

Before completion of the deposition and if not otherwise informed by counsel, the officer shall advise a deponent of the right to review, modify, and sign the transcript or affirm the accuracy of the audio or video recording. If requested by the deponent or a party before completion of the deposition, the deponent shall have 30 days after being notified by the officer that the transcript or recording is available in which to review the transcript or recording and, if there are changes in form or substance, to sign a statement reciting such changes and the reasons given by the deponent for making them. The officer shall indicate in the certificate prescribed by subdivision (f)(1) whether any review was requested and, if so, shall append any changes made by the deponent during the period allowed. If the witness does not submit such a statement or a written explanation why such statement cannot be submitted within the time period provided, the officer shall indicate in the certificate prescribed by subdivision (f)(1) or by affidavit the fact of the refusal to submit a statement with the reason therefore, if any, and the deposition may then be used as fully as though signed unless on a motion to suppress under Rule 32(d)(4) the court holds that the reasons given for the refusal to submit a statement require rejection of the deposition in whole or in part.

Rule 30(f). Certification and Delivery by Officer; Exhibits; Copies

(1) The officer must certify that the witness was duly sworn by the officer and that the deposition is a true record of the testimony given by the witness. This certificate must be in writing and accompany the record of the deposition. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the officer must securely seal the deposition in an envelope or package endorsed with the title of the action and marked "Deposition of [here insert name of witness]" and must promptly send it to the attorney who arranged for the transcript or recording, who must store it under conditions that will protect it against loss, destruction, tampering, or deterioration. Documents and things produced for inspection during the examination of the witness must, upon the request of a party, be marked for identification and annexed to the deposition and may be inspected and copied by any party, except that if the person producing the materials desires to retain them the person may (A) offer copies to be marked for identification and annexed to the deposition and to serve thereafter as originals if the person affords to all parties fair opportunity to verify the copies by comparison with the originals, or (B) offer the originals to be marked for identification, after giving to each party an opportunity to inspect and copy them, in which event the materials may then be used in the same manner as if annexed to the deposition. Any party may move for an order that the original be annexed to and returned with the deposition to the court, pending final disposition of the case.

(2) Unless otherwise ordered by the court or agreed by the parties, the certified court reporter shall preserve the record of any deposition for a period of time corresponding to the applicable records retention and disposition schedules adopted by the Supreme Court. Upon payment of reasonable charges therefor, the certified court reporter shall furnish a copy of the transcript of the deposition to any party or to the deponent.

If the record of the deposition is created solely by audio or audio–video means, and unless otherwise ordered by the court or agreed by the parties, the officer shall retain the original recording of any deposition for a period of time corresponding to the applicable records retention and disposition schedules adopted by the Supreme Court in such place and manner as to ensure its availability to the court or any party upon request. Upon payment of reasonable charges therefor, the officer shall furnish a copy of the recording of the deposition to any party or to the deponent.

(3) The party taking the deposition shall give prompt notice of its filing to all other parties.

Rule 30(g). Failure to attend or to serve subpoena; expenses

(1) If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition fails to attend and proceed therewith and another party attends in person or by attorney pursuant to the notice, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the reasonable expenses incurred by that party and that party's attorney in attending, including reasonable attorney's fees.

(2) If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition of a witness fails to serve a subpoena upon the witness and the witness because of such failure does not attend, and if another party attends in person or by attorney because that party expects the deposition of that witness to be taken, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the reasonable expenses incurred by that party and that party's attorney in attending, including reasonable attorney's fees.

Rule 30(h). Depositions for foreign jurisdiction

When an action is pending in a jurisdiction foreign to the State of Arizona and a party or a party's attorney wishes to take a deposition in this state, it may be done and a subpoena or subpoena duces tecum may issue therefor from the Superior Court of this state. The party or the attorney shall file, as a civil action, an application, under oath, captioned as is the foreign action, which contains the following information:

(a) The caption of the case and the court in which it is pending including the names of all parties and the names of the attorneys for the parties;

(b) References to the law of the jurisdiction in which the action is pending which authorized the taking of the deposition in this state and such facts as, under that law, must appear to entitle the party to take the deposition and have a subpoena issued for the attendance of the witness;

(c) A certified copy of the notice of taking deposition, order of the court authorizing the deposition, commission or letters rogatory or such other pleadings as, under the law of the foreign jurisdiction, are necessary in order to take the deposition;

(d) A description of the notice given to other parties and a description of the service of the application to be made upon other parties to the action.

Upon the filing of the application, the clerk of the Superior Court of the county in which the deposition is to be taken shall forthwith issue the subpoena or subpoena duces tecum as requested by the application. An affidavit of service of the application upon all other parties to the civil action shall be filed with the clerk of the court.

No further proceedings in the Superior Court of the State of Arizona are required but any party or the witness may make such motions as are appropriate under the Arizona Rules of Civil Procedure.

Rule 30(i). Deleted

Rule 31. Depositions Upon Written Questions

Rule 31(a). Serving questions; notice

After commencement of the action, any party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon written questions. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by the use of subpoena as provided in Rule 45. The deposition of a person confined in prison may be taken only by leave of court on such terms as the court prescribes.

A party desiring to take a deposition upon written questions shall serve them upon every other party with a notice stating (1) the name and address of the person who is to answer them, if known, and if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify the person or the particular class or group to which the person belongs, and (2) the name or descriptive title and address of the officer before whom the deposition is to be taken. A deposition upon written questions may be taken of a public or private corporation or a partnership or association or governmental agency in accordance with the provisions of Rule 30(b)(6).

Within 30 days after the notice and written questions are served, a party may serve cross questions upon all other parties. Within 10 days after being served with cross questions, a party may serve redirect questions upon all other parties. Within 10 days after being served with redirect questions, a party may serve recross questions upon all other parties. The court may for cause shown enlarge or shorten the time.

Rule 31(b). Officer to take responses and prepare record

A copy of the notice and copies of all questions served shall be delivered by the party taking the deposition to the officer designated in the notice, who shall proceed promptly, in the manner provided by Rule 30(c), (e), and (f), to take the testimony of the witness in response to the questions and to prepare, certify, and file or mail the deposition, attaching thereto the copy of the notice and the questions received by the officer.

Rule 31(c). Notice of filing

When the deposition is filed the party taking it shall promptly give notice thereof to all other parties.

Rule 31(d). Deleted

Rule 32. Use of Depositions in Court Proceedings

Rule 32(a). Use of Depositions

At the trial or at any hearing, any part or all of a deposition, so far as admissible under the rules of evidence applied as though the witness were then present and testifying, may be used against any party who was present or represented at the taking of the deposition or who had reasonable notice thereof, and had an opportunity and similar motive to develop the testimony by direct, cross, or redirect examination. The party who seeks admission of the testimony by deposition may do so without proof of the deponent's unavailability to testify at trial. Nothing contained in this Rule shall be construed to limit, in any way, the right of any party to call the deposed witness to testify in person at trial.

If only part of a deposition is offered in evidence by a party, the court may require the offeror to introduce contemporaneously any other part which ought in fairness to be considered together with the part introduced.

Except as provided in Rule 56(e), the use of the deposition transcript may be supplemented with contemporaneously recorded audio and video files that may be synchronized to the deposition transcript, if any.

Substitution of parties pursuant to Rule 25 does not affect the right to use depositions previously taken; and, when an action has been brought in any court of the United States or of any state, and another action involving the same subject matter is afterward brought between the same parties or their representatives or successors in interest, all depositions lawfully taken and duly filed in the former action may be used in the latter as if originally taken therefor. A deposition previously taken may also be used as permitted by the Arizona Rules of Evidence.

Rule 32(b). Objections to Admissibility

Subject to the provisions of Rules 28(b) and subdivision (d)(3) of this rule, objection may be made at the trial or hearing to receiving in evidence any deposition or part thereof for any reason which would require the exclusion of the evidence if the witness were then present and testifying.

Rule 32(c). Form of Presentation

A party offering deposition testimony may offer it in the form permitted by Rules 30(b)(4) and 30(c). If deposition testimony is offered in any form for any purpose, the offering party shall provide the court with a transcript of the portions offered. In cases tried before a jury, if deposition testimony is to be offered for purposes other than impeachment and is available in non–stenographic form, it shall be presented to the jury in that form unless the court for good cause orders otherwise.

Rule 32(d). Effect of Errors and Irregularities in Depositions

(1) As to notice. All errors and irregularities in the notice for taking a deposition are waived unless written objection is promptly served upon the party giving the notice.

(2) As to disqualification of officer. Objection to taking a deposition because of disqualification of the officer before whom it is to be taken is waived unless made before the taking of the deposition begins or as soon thereafter as the disqualification becomes known or could be discovered with reasonable diligence.

(3) As to Taking of Deposition.

(A) Objections to the competency of a witness or to the competency, relevancy, or materiality of testimony are not waived by failure to make them before or during the taking of the deposition, unless the ground of the objection is one which might have been obviated or removed if presented at that time.

(B) Errors and irregularities occurring at the oral examination in the manner of taking the deposition, in the form of the questions or answers, in the oath or affirmation, or in the conduct of parties, and errors of any kind which might be obviated, removed, or cured if promptly presented, are waived unless seasonable objection thereto is made at the taking of the deposition.

(C) Objections to the form of written questions submitted under Rule 31 are waived unless served in writing upon the party propounding them within the time allowed for serving the succeeding cross or other questions and within 5 days after service of the last questions authorized.

(D) Objections to the form of the question or responsiveness of the answer shall be concise, and shall not suggest answers to the witness. No specification of the defect in the form of the question or the answer shall be stated unless requested by the party propounding the question. Argumentative interruptions shall not be permitted.

(E) Continuous and unwarranted off the record conferences between the deponent and counsel following the propounding of questions and prior to the answer or at any time during the deposition are prohibited. This conduct is subject to the proscriptions of Rule 32(d)(3)(D) and the sanctions prescribed in Rule 37.

(4) As to completion and return of deposition. Errors and irregularities in the manner in which the testimony is transcribed or the deposition is prepared, signed, certified, sealed, indorsed, transmitted, filed, or otherwise dealt with by the officer under Rules 30 and 31 are waived unless a motion to suppress the deposition or some part thereof is made with reasonable promptness after such defect is, or with due diligence might have been, ascertained.

Rule 33. Interrogatories to Parties

Rule 33(a). Availability; Procedures for Use

Any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories to be answered by the party served or, if the party served is a public or private corporation or a partnership or association of governmental agency, by any officer or agent, who shall furnish such information as is available to the party. Interrogatories may, without leave of court, be served upon the plaintiff after commencement of the action and upon any other party with or after service of the summons and complaint upon that party.

Each interrogatory shall be answered separately and fully in writing under oath, unless it is objected to, in which event the reasons for objection shall be stated in lieu of an answer. The answers are to be signed by the person making them, and the objections signed by the attorney making them. The party upon whom the interrogatories have been served shall serve a copy of the answers, and objections if any, within 40 days after the service of the interrogatories, except that a defendant may serve answers or objections within 60 days after service of the summons and complaint upon that defendant, or execution of a waiver of service, by that defendant. The court may allow a shorter or longer time. The party submitting the interrogatories may move for an order under Rule 37(a) with respect to any objection to or other failure to answer an interrogatory.

Rule 33(b). Scope; use at trial

Interrogatories may relate to any matters which can be inquired into under Rule 26(b), and the answers may be used to the extent permitted by the rules of evidence.

An interrogatory otherwise proper is not necessarily objectionable merely because an answer to the interrogatory involves an opinion or contention that relates to fact or the application of law to fact, but the court may order that such an interrogatory need not be answered until after designated discovery has been completed or until a pretrial conference or other later time.

Rule 33(c). Option to produce business records

Where the answer to an interrogatory may be derived or ascertained from the business records, including electronically stored information, of the party upon whom the interrogatory has been served or from an examination, audit or inspection of such business records, including a compilation, abstract or summary thereof, and the burden of deriving or ascertaining the answer is substantially the same for the party serving the interrogatory as for the party served, it is a sufficient answer to such interrogatory to specify the records from which the answer may be derived or ascertained and to afford the party serving the interrogatory reasonable opportunity to examine, audit or inspect such records and to make copies, compilations, abstracts or summaries. A specification shall be in sufficient detail to permit the interrogating party to locate and to identify, as readily as can the party served, the records from which the answer may be derived or ascertained.

Rule 33.1. Uniform and Non–uniform Interrogatories; Limitations; Procedure

(a) Presumptive Limitations. Except as provided in these Rules, a party shall not serve upon any other party more than forty (40) interrogatories, which may be any combination of uniform or non–uniform interrogatories. Any uniform interrogatory and its subparts shall be counted as one interrogatory. Any subpart to a non–uniform interrogatory shall be considered as a separate interrogatory. In the notice of service of uniform interrogatories, a propounding party may specifically limit the scope of the uniform interrogatory to request less information than called for in the uniform interrogatory, such as by requesting information only as to particular persons, events, or issues. Such limiting instructions do not transform the uniform interrogatory into a non–uniform interrogatory.

(b) Stipulations to Serve Additional Interrogatories. If a party believes that good cause exists for the service of more than forty (40) interrogatories upon any other party, that party shall consult with the party upon whom the additional interrogatories would be served and attempt to secure a written stipulation as to the number of additional interrogatories that may be served.

(c) Leave of Court to Serve Additional Interrogatories. If a stipulation permitting the service of additional interrogatories is not secured, a party desiring to serve additional interrogatories may do so only by leave of court. Upon written motion or application showing good cause therefor, the court in its discretion may grant to a party leave to serve a reasonable number of additional interrogatories upon any other party. The party seeking leave to serve additional interrogatories shall have the burden of establishing that the issues presented in the action warrant the service of additional interrogatories, or that such additional interrogatories are a more practical or less burdensome method of obtaining the information sought, or other good cause therefor. No such motion or application may be heard or considered by the court unless accompanied by the proposed additional interrogatories to be served, and by the certification of counsel required by Rule 37(a)( 2)C) of these Rules. The proposed additional interrogatories shall only be attached to the judge's copy of the motion and the copy served on opposing parties.

(d) Spacing. Whenever interrogatories are used, a space sufficient for the answer shall be left immediately below the question. The answering party shall insert the answer in the space below each interrogatory, or if it requires more space, on a separate sheet which restates the question before giving the answer.

(e) Nonuniform Interrogatories. The method of propounding and answering Nonuniform Interrogatories shall be as follows:

(1) A party propounding interrogatories, other than Uniform Interrogatories, shall serve upon the answering party and not the clerk of the court, the original and one copy of the interrogatories and shall serve a copy upon every other party.

(2) The answering party shall, within the time permitted by law, serve upon the propounding party and all other parties one copy of the interrogatories and typewritten answers.

(f) Uniform Interrogatories. The interrogatories set forth in the Appendix of Forms following these Rules are denominated as Uniform Interrogatories, and are approved for use as a standard or guide in preparation by counsel of interrogatories under Rule 33 of these Rules. The use of Uniform Interrogatories shall be governed by Rule 33 of these Rules, and this Rule. The use of Uniform Interrogatories is not mandatory. The interrogatories should serve as a guide only, and may or may not be approved as to either form or substance in a particular case. They are not to be used as a standard set of interrogatories for submission in all cases. Any uniform interrogatory may be used where it fits the legal or factual issues of the particular case, regardless of how the action or claims are designated. The method of propounding and answering Uniform Interrogatories shall be as follows:

(1) A party propounding Uniform Interrogatories shall serve a copy of a Notice of Service of Uniform Interrogatories upon each other party to the action.

(2) The Notice of Service of Uniform Interrogatories shall contain the names of the party and attorney to whom the request is made and the number only of each uniform interrogatory for which the propounding party requests an answer.

(3) The answering party shall:

(i) reproduce the text of each interrogatory requested and insert the answer below it;

(ii) serve the original upon the propounding party and a copy upon all other parties.

Rule 34. Production of Documents, Electronically Stored Information, and Things and Entry Upon Land for Inspection and Other Purposes

Rule 34(a). Scope

Any party may serve on any other party requests (1) to produce and permit the party making the request, or someone acting on the requestor's behalf, to inspect, copy, test or sample any designated documents or electronically stored information––including writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, sound recordings, images, and other data or data compilations stored in any medium from which information can be obtained – translated into reasonably usable form when translation is practicably necessary, or to inspect, copy, test, or sample any designated tangible things which constitute or contain matters within the scope of Rule 26(b) and which are in the possession, custody or control of the party upon whom the request is served; or (2) to permit entry upon designated land or other property in the possession or control of the party upon whom the request is served for the purpose of inspection and measuring, surveying, photographing, testing, or sampling the property or any designated object or operation thereon, within the scope of Rule 26(b).

Rule 34(b). Procedure and Limitations

The requests may, without leave of the court, be served upon the plaintiff after commencement of the action and upon any other party with or after service of the summons and complaint upon that party. The requests shall set forth the items to be inspected either by individual item or by specific category, and describe each item and specific category with reasonable particularity. The request may specify the form or forms in which electronically stored information is to be produced. The requests(s) shall not, without leave of court, cumulatively include more than ten (10) distinct items or specific categories of items. Each request shall specify a reasonable time, place, and manner of making the inspection and performing the related acts. If a party believes that good cause exists for more than ten (10) distinct items or categories of items, that party shall consult with the party upon whom a request would be served and attempt to secure a written stipulation to that effect. The party upon whom a request is served shall serve a written response within 40 days after the service of the request, except that a defendant may serve a response within 60 days after service of the summons and complaint upon that defendant, or execution of a waiver of service by that defendant. The court may allow a shorter or longer time. The response shall state, with respect to each item or category, that inspection and related activities will be permitted as requested or identify the reasons for any objection, including any objection to the requested form or forms for producing electronically stored information,. If objection is made to part of an item or category, the part shall be specified. If objection is made to the requested form or forms for producing electronically stored information––or if no form was specified in the request––the responding party must state the form or forms it intends to use. The party submitting a request may move for an order under Rule 37(a) with respect to any objection to or other failure to respond to the request or any part thereof, or any failure to permit inspection as requested. Unless the parties otherwise agree, or the court otherwise orders:

(1) a party who produced documents for inspection shall produce them as they are kept in the usual course of business or shall organize and label them to correspond with the categories in the request;

(2) if a request does not specify the form or forms for producing electronically stored information, a responding party must produce the information in a form or forms in which it is ordinarily maintained or in a form or forms that are reasonably usable; and

(3) a party need not produce the same electronically stored information in more than one form.

Rule 34(c). Persons not Parties

A person not a party to the action may be compelled to produce documents and things or to submit to an inspection as provided in Rule 45.

Rule 35. Physical and Mental Examination of Persons

Rule 35(a). Order for Examination

When the mental or physical condition (including the blood group) of a party, or of a person in the custody or under the legal control of a party, is in controversy, the court in which the action is pending may order the party to submit to a physical or mental examination by a physician or psychologist or to produce for examination the person in the party's custody or legal control. The order may be made only on motion for good cause shown and upon notice to the person to be examined and to all parties and shall specify the time, place, manner, conditions, and scope of the examination and the person or persons by whom it is to be made. The person to be examined shall have the right to have a representative present during the examination, unless the presence of that representative may adversely affect the outcome of the examination. The person to be examined shall have the right to record by audiotape any physical examination. A mental examination may be recorded by audiotape, unless such recording may adversely affect the outcome of the examination. Upon good cause shown, a physical or mental examination may be video–recorded. A copy of any record made of a physical or mental examination shall be provided to any party upon request.

Rule 35(b). Report of Examiner

(1) If requested by the party against whom an order is made under Rule 35(a) or the person examined, the party causing the examination to be made shall deliver to the requestor, within twenty days of the examination, a copy of the detailed written report of the examining licensed professional setting out the professional's findings, including the results of all tests made, diagnoses and conditions, together with like reports of all earlier examinations of the same condition and copies of all written or recorded notes filed out by the examiner and the person examined at the time of the examination, providing access to the original written or recorded notes for purposes of comparing same with the copies. After delivery the party causing the examination shall be entitled upon request to receive from the party against whom the order is made a like report of any examination, previously or thereafter made, of the same condition, unless, in the case of a report of examination of a person not a party, the party shows that such party is unable to obtain it. The court on motion may make an order against a party requiring delivery of a report on such terms as are just, and if a physician or psychologist fails or refuses to make a report the court may exclude the physician's or psychologist's testimony if offered at the trial.

(2) By requesting and obtaining a report of the examination so ordered or by taking the deposition of the examiner, the party examined waives any privilege the party may have in that action or any other involving the same controversy, regarding the testimony of every other person who has examined or may thereafter examine the party in respect of the same mental or physical condition.

(3) This subdivision applies to examinations made by agreement of the parties, unless the agreement expressly provides otherwise. This subdivision does not preclude discovery of a report of an examining physician or psychologist or the taking of a deposition of the physician or psychologist in accordance with the provisions of any other rule.

Rule 35(c). Alternate Procedure; Notice of Examination; Objections

(1) When the parties agree that a mental or physical examination is appropriate but do not agree as to the examining physician or psychologist, the party desiring the examination may seek it by giving reasonable notice in writing to every other party to the action not less than 30 days in advance. The notice shall specify the name of the person to be examined, the time, place and scope of the examination, and the person or persons by whom it is to be made. The person to be physically examined shall have the right to have a representative present during the examination, unless the presence of that representative may adversely affect the outcome of the examination. The person to be examined shall have the right to record by audiotape any physical examination. A mental examination may be recorded by audiotape, unless such recording may adversely affect the outcome of the examination. Upon good cause shown, a physical or mental examination may be video–recorded. A copy of any record made of a physical or mental examination shall be provided to any party upon request.

(2) Upon motion by a party or by the person to be examined, and for good cause shown, the court in which the action is pending may, in addition to other orders appropriate under subdivision (a) of this rule, make an order that the examination be made by a physician or psychologist other than the one specified in the notice. If a party after being served with a proper notice under this subdivision does not make a motion under this rule, and fails to appear for the examination or to produce for the examination the person in the party's custody or legal control, the court in which the action is pending may on motion make such orders in regard to the failure as are just, such as those specified in Rule 37 (f).

(3) The provisions of Rule 35(b) shall apply to an examination made under this subdivision.

Rule 36. Requests for Admission

Rule 36(a). Request for Admission

A party may serve upon any other party a written request for the admission, for purposes of the pending action only, of the truth of any matters within the scope of Rule 26(b) set forth in the request that relate to statements or opinions of fact or of the application of law to fact, including the genuineness of any documents described in the request. Copies of documents shall be served with the request unless they have been or are otherwise furnished or made available for inspection and copying. The request may, without leave of court, be served upon the plaintiff after commencement of the action and upon any other party with or after service of the summons and complaint upon that party. Each matter of which an admission is requested shall be separately set forth. The matter is admitted unless, within (40) days after service of the request, or, in the case of a defendant, within 60 days after service of the summons and complaint upon that defendant, or execution of a waiver of service by that defendant, or within such shorter or longer time as the court may allow, the party to whom the request is directed serves upon the party requesting the admission a written answer or objection addressed to the matter, signed by the party or by the party's attorney. If objection is made, the reasons therefor shall be stated. The answer shall specifically deny the matter or set forth in detail the reasons why the answering party cannot truthfully admit or deny the matter. A denial shall fairly meet the substance of the requested admission, and when good faith requires that a party qualify an answer or deny only a part of the matter of which an admission is requested, the party shall specify so much of it as is true and qualify or deny the remainder. An answering party may not give lack of information or knowledge as a reason for failure to admit or deny unless the party states that the party has made reasonable inquiry and that the information known or readily obtainable by the party is insufficient to enable the party to admit or deny. A party who considers that a matter of which an admission has been requested presents a genuine issue for trial may not, on that ground alone, object to the request; the party may, subject to the provisions of Rule 37(e), deny the matter or set forth reasons why the party cannot admit or deny it. The party who has requested the admissions may move to determine the sufficiency of the answers or objections. Unless the court determines that an objection is justified, it shall order that an answer be served. If the court determines that an answer does not comply with the requirements of this rule, it may order either that the matter is admitted or that an amended answer be served. The court may, in lieu of these orders, determine that final disposition of the request be made at a pre–trial conference or at a designated time prior to trial. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

Rule 36(b). Procedure

Each request shall contain only one factual matter or request for genuineness of all documents or categories of documents. Each party without leave of court shall be entitled to submit no more than twenty–five (25) requests in any case except upon: (1) agreement of all parties; (2) an order of the court following a motion demonstrating good cause, or (3) an order of the court following a Comprehensive Pretrial Conference pursuant to Rule 16(c). Any interrogatories accompanying requests shall be deemed interrogatories under Rule 33.1.

Rule 36(c). Effect of admission

Any matter admitted under this rule is conclusively established unless the court on motion permits withdrawal or amendment of the admission. Subject to the provisions of Rule 16 governing amendment of a pre–trial order, the court may permit withdrawal or amendment when the presentation of the merits of the action will be subserved thereby and the party who obtained the admission fails to satisfy the court that withdrawal or amendment will prejudice that party in maintaining the action or defense on the merits. Any admission made by a party under this rule is for the purpose of the pending action only and is not an admission for any other purpose nor may it be used against the party in any other proceeding.

Rule 37. Failure to Make Disclosure or Discovery; Sanctions

Rule 37(a). Motion for Order Compelling Disclosure or Discovery

A party, upon reasonable notice to other parties and all persons affected thereby, may apply for an order compelling disclosure or discovery as follows:

(1) Appropriate court. An application for an order to a party may be made to the court in the county in which the action is pending, or, in matters relating to a deposition, to the court in the county where the deposition is being taken. An application for an order to a person who is not a party shall be made to the court in the county where the discovery is being, or is to be, taken.

(2) Motion.

(A) If a party fails to make a disclosure required by Rule 26.1, any other party may move to compel disclosure and for appropriate sanctions.

(B) If a deponent fails to answer a question propounded or submitted under Rule 30 or 31, or a corporation or other entity fails to make a designation under Rule 30(b)(6) or 31(a), or a party fails to answer an interrogatory submitted under Rule 33, or if a party, in response to a request for inspection submitted under Rule 34, fails to respond that inspection will be permitted as requested or fails to permit inspection as requested, the discovering party may move for an order compelling an answer, or a designation, or an order compelling inspection in accordance with the request. When taking a deposition on oral examination, the proponent of the question may complete or adjourn the examination before applying for an order.

(C) No motion brought under this Rule 37 will be considered or scheduled unless a separate statement of moving counsel is attached thereto certifying that, after personal consultation and good faith efforts to do so, counsel have been unable to satisfactorily resolve the matter.

(3) Evasive or Incomplete Disclosure, Answer, or Response. For purposes of this subdivision an evasive or incomplete disclosure, answer, or response is to be treated as a failure to disclose, answer, or respond.

(4) Expenses and Sanctions.

(A) If the motion is granted or if the disclosure or requested discovery is provided after the motion was filed, the court shall, after affording an opportunity to be heard, require the party or deponent whose conduct necessitated the motion or the party or attorney advising such conduct or both of them to pay the moving party the reasonable expenses incurred in making the motion, including attorney's fees, unless the court finds that the motion was filed without the movant's first making a good faith effort to obtain the disclosure or discovery without court action, or that the opposing party's nondisclosure, response, or objection was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

(B) If the motion is denied, the court may enter any protective order authorized under Rule 26(c) and shall, after affording an opportunity to be heard, require the moving party or the attorney filing the motion or both of them to pay to the party or deponent who opposed the motion the reasonable expenses incurred in opposing the motion, including attorney's fees, unless the court finds that the making of the motion was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

(C) If the motion is granted in part and denied in part, the court may enter any protective order authorized under Rule 26(c) and may, after affording an opportunity to be heard, apportion the reasonable expenses incurred in relation to the motion among the parties and persons in a just manner.

Rule 37(b). Failure to comply with order

(1) Sanctions by court in county where deposition is taken. If a deponent fails to be sworn or to answer a question after being directed to do so by the court in the county in which the deposition is being taken, the failure may be considered a contempt of that court.

(2) Sanctions by court in which action is pending. If a party or an officer, director, or managing agent of a party or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) or 31(a) to testify on behalf of a party fails to obey an order to provide or permit discovery, including an order made under subdivision (a) of this rule or Rule 35 the court in which the action is pending may make such orders in regard to the failure as are just, and among others the following:

(A) An order that the matters regarding which the order was made or any other designated facts shall be taken to be established for the purposes of the action in accordance with the claim of the party obtaining the order;

(B) An order refusing to allow the disobedient party to support or oppose designated claims or defenses, or prohibiting that party from introducing designated matters in evidence;

(C) An order striking out pleadings or parts thereof, or staying further proceedings until the order is obeyed, or dismissing the action or proceeding or any part thereof, or rendering a judgment by default against the disobedient party;

(D) In lieu of any of the foregoing orders or in addition thereto, an order treating as a contempt of court the failure to obey any orders except an order to submit to a physical or mental examination;

(E) Where a party has failed to comply with an order under Rule 35(a) requiring that party to produce another for examination, such orders as are listed in paragraphs (A), (B), and (C) of this subdivision, unless the party failing to comply shows that that party is unable to produce such person for examination.

In lieu of any of the foregoing orders or in addition thereto, the court shall require the party failing to obey the order or the attorney advising that party or both to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, caused by the failure, unless the court finds that the failure was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

Rule 37(c). Failure to Disclose; False or Misleading Disclosure; Untimely Disclosure

(1) A party who fails to timely disclose information required by Rule 26.1 shall not, unless such failure is harmless, be permitted to use as evidence at trial, at a hearing, or on a motion, the information or witness not disclosed, except by leave of court for good cause shown. A party or attorney who makes a disclosure pursuant to Rule 26.1 that the party or attorney knew or should have known was inaccurate or incomplete and thereby causes an opposing party to engage in investigation or discovery, shall be ordered by the court to reimburse the opposing party for the cost, including attorney's fees of such investigation or discovery. In addition to or in lieu of these sanctions, the court on motion of a party or on the court's own motion, and after affording an opportunity to be heard, may impose other appropriate sanctions. In addition to requiring payment of reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, caused by the failure, these sanctions may include any of the actions authorized under subparagraphs (A), (B) and (C) of subdivision (b)(2) of this Rule and may include informing the jury of the failure to make the disclosure.

(2) A party seeking to use information which that party first disclosed later than sixty (60) days before trial must obtain leave of court by motion, supported by affidavit, to extend the time for disclosure. Such information shall not be used unless the motion establishes and the court finds:

(i) that the information would be allowed under the standards of subsection (c)(1) notwithstanding the short time remaining before trial; and

(ii) that the information was disclosed as soon as practicable after its discovery.

(3) A party seeking to use information which that party first disclosed during trial must obtain leave of court by motion, supported by affidavit, to extend the time for disclosure. Such information shall not be used unless the motion establishes and the court finds:

(i) that the information could not have been discovered and disclosed earlier even with due diligence; and

(ii) that the information was disclosed immediately upon its discovery.

Rule 37(d). Failure to Disclose Unfavorable Information

A party's or attorney's knowing failure to timely disclose damaging or unfavorable information shall be grounds for imposition of serious sanctions in the court's discretion up to and including dismissal of the claim or defense.

Rule 37(e). Expenses on Failure to Admit

If a party fails to admit the genuineness of any document or the truth of any matter as requested under Rule 36, and if the party requesting the admissions thereafter proves the genuineness of the document or the truth of the matter, the requesting party may apply to the court for an order requiring the other party to pay the reasonable expenses incurred in making that proof, including reasonable attorney's fees. The court shall make the order unless it finds that (1) the request was held objectionable pursuant to Rule 36(a), or (2) the admission sought was of no substantial importance, or (3) the party failing to admit had reasonable ground to believe that the party might prevail on the matter, or (4) there was other good reason for the failure to admit.

Rule 37(f). Failure of Party to Attend at Own Deposition or Serve Answer to Interrogatories or Respond to Request for Inspection

If a party or an officer, director, or managing agent of a party or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) or 31(a) to testify on behalf of a party fails (1) to appear before the officer who is to take the deposition, after being served with a proper notice, or (2) to serve answers or objections to interrogatories submitted under Rule 33, after proper service of the interrogatories, or (3) to serve a written response to a request for inspection submitted under Rule 34, after proper service of the request, the court in which the action is pending on motion may make such orders in regard to the failure as are just, and among others it may take any action authorized under paragraphs (A), (B), and (C) of subdivision (b)(2) of this rule. In lieu of any order or in addition thereto, the court shall require the party failing to act or the attorney advising that party or both to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, caused by the failure, unless the court finds that the failure was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

The failure to act described in this subdivision may not be excused on the ground that the discovery sought is objectionable unless the party failing to act has applied for a protective order as provided by Rule 26(c).

Rule 37(g). Electronically stored information

Absent exceptional circumstances, a court may not impose sanctions under these rules on a party for failing to provide electronically stored information lost as a result of the routine, good–faith operation of an electronic information system.

 

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